Ozcan and Tabas on Calcium Signaling and ER Stress in Insulin Resistance and Atherosclerosis
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response pathways. Perturbations in ER homoeostasis activate three ER membrane localized proteins: IRE1, ATF6 and PERK. These ER stress transducers lower ER load through regulating several transcription factors such as XBP1s, p58IPK and CHOP. PERK, protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase; IRE1, inositol requiring protein-1; ATF6, activating transcription factor 6; RIDD, regulated IRE1-dependent decay; JNK, c-Jun N-terminal kinase; XBP1, X-box-binding protein-1; p58IPK, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase inhibitor; p-eIF2α, phosphorylated-eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α; ATF4, activating transcription factor 4; CHOP, C/EBP homolog protein; ERO-1α, ER oxidase-1α; IP3R, inositol triphosphate receptor; CaMKII; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II; Trb3, Tribbles homolog 3.
Read the article: Calcium signalling and ER stress in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis.